Computer Science Concepts in Scratch
Michal Armoni and Moti Ben-Ari
Copyright 2013 by Michal Armoni, Moti Ben-Ari, Weizmann Institute of Science.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900,
Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.
This book will familiarize you with the Scratch visual programming
environment, focusing on using Scratch to learn computer science.
The book is structured as a collection of tasks. Each chapter
teaches a new concept, but the concept is introduced in order to solve a
specific task such as animating dancing images or building a game. Each
chapter starts with a simple task, but as soon as we solve one task, we
add additional tasks to extend the existing task. The sequence of tasks
will require a new construct of Scratch or the use of constructs you
know in new ways.
The textbook was written for Scratch 1.4. We have also written a
supplement that explains the changes and additional features in Scratch
The textbook is available in three formats: (a) with equal margins for
screen display and one-sided printing; (b) with margins for two-sided
printing and binding in the left margin; (c) with a large font on a
small text area that enables better accessibility by magnifying the pdf.
The layout was carefully done for the full-size pages and will be
suboptimal in the small format; we have no plans at this time to improve
this format or to produce other formats for ereaders.
Our other learning materials for Scratch
Moti has created many Scratch projects that can be used as learning
You can find the Scratch projects on the MIT Scratch website
or on his local Scratch page.
- Implementations of the activities of Computer Science Unplugged.
- Projects on robotics: implementations of Karel the Robot and
Braintenberg's vehicles, projects for the LEDO WeDO kit, and
simulations of the Thymio education robot.
- A game for learning mathematics.
- O. Meerbaum-Salant, M. Armoni, M. Ben-Ari.
Habits of programming in Scratch.
Sixteenth Conference on Innovation and Technology
in Computer Science Education, Darmstadt, Germany, 2011, 168--172.
- O. Meerbaum-Salant, M. Armoni, M. Ben-Ari. Learning computer
science concepts with Scratch. Computer Science Education, 23(3),
- M. Armoni, O. Meerbaum-Salant, M. Ben-Ari. From Scratch to
"Real" Programming. ACM Transactions on Computing Education,
14(4), article 25, 2015.
The questionnaires used in the research can be downloaded from
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